1.1 Definitions of collocation
E J. R. Firth ( British linguist )
@ an abstraction at the syntagmatic level=gyou shall judge a word by the company it keepsh
e.g.) night¨@dark night, night night
E Sinclair ( a student of Firth )
the occurrence of two or more words within a short space of each other in a text
E Leech gSeven Types of Meaningh(1974)
collocative meaning₯₯₯consists of the associations a word acquires on account of the meanings of words which tend to occur in its environment
part of a native speakerfs communicative competence@
E Hoey (1991)
The name given to the relationship a lexical item has with items that appear with greater than random probability in its context
Collocation is usually used to refer to the co-occurrence of two single words
J. R. Firth₯₯₯all grammatical levels including patterns such as assonance and alliteration taken from poetry
1.2 @Collocation, text type and style
The language as a whole VS the individualfs psychological knowledge of what constitutes normal collocation
Collocational normality is dependent genre, register and style
Eliterature and language₯₯₯ the usual collocations of a literary form or genre or of a particular author
(saved, spent, wasted ) time © common
( half, full, extra ) time © sports journalism
vigorous depressions, dull highlights©meteorology and photography
Enormal collocations and normal grammar
@@Eunusual collocations and normal grammar
@@Enormal collocations and unusual grammar
@@Eunusual collocations and unusual grammar
Carter(1987)₯₯₯producing language at the two extremes of the scale is risky.
Between the two extremes is a dimension in which more individual and creative effects can be produced.
1.3 Collocation and communicative competence
The knowledge of normal collocations is part of a native speakerfs communicative competence.
Communicative competence by Hymes(1971)
The knowledge of 1) what is formally possible ¨ Chomskian competence
2) what is feasible
3) what is appropriate context-related, refining process
4) what is actually performed @@@
@@@@@@@@@@knowledge of what is normal collocation is important
No total agreement as to which collocations are acceptable
Carter(1987) gQuestions of acceptability are much more difficult to determine than the decision over what is grammatical or ungrammatical. hsuggesting by using gtechniques of informant analysis and a line drawn between what can generally be allowed and what can noth
1.4 The gidiom horgcollocationalh principle
Collocation₯₯₯two main organizing features of text © a number of authors
open choice principle © Sinclair(1987)
ga series of slots which have to be filled from a lexiconh the only restraints being grammatical , further constraints are gidiomhgcollacational principlehSinclair(1987)
Q) Why do language users need to store both the single vocabulary items and a lexicon of preconstructed phrases?
E The effort saved by making far fewer slot filling choices in real-time easily outweighs
the disadvantages of unwieldy storage.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
EWe store a large number of complex items we manipulate with comparatively simple operations ₯₯₯Ladefoged (1972)
@@Estorage capacity is vast but that the speed for processing those memories is not so that we must learn shortcut₯₯₯Nattinger &DeCarrico(1992)
Idiom-collocation principle is to save processing time and effort.
typical of conversation and also being applied for writing
for writing 1)signal the register
2)cut down processing time
Discourses are created by a combination of the idiom and open choice principles. But it is hard which is operating most strongly.
gthings for lexical units larger than wordshgidiomh©Bolinger
1.5 Collocation and linguistic schema ( or schemata )
Elexicalized sentence stems₯₯₯Pawley&Syder(1983) explain the existence and functions
Elinguistic schema₯₯₯Barlow & Kemmer(1994) in language of semi-constructed phrases
Ea lexicalized sentence stems
Consisting of a sentence or part of a sentence in which one or more of the structural elements is a class rather than a particular discrete item
e.g.) Ifm sorry to keep you waiting.
Ifm sorry to have kept you waiting.
Mr. X is sorry to keep you waiting all this time.
NP be-TENSE sorry to keep- TENSE you waiting. ©@sentence stem
@form components of a gform-meaning pairinghwhich shares some of the qualities of a fixed phrase but which also contains variable parts capable of capturing context dependent information
e.g.) let oneself go ¨variables Elet ¨glet + reflexive + goh= schema
gschemash₯₯₯ghigh-level complex knowledge structureshwhich function asg ideational scaffoldinghborrowed from psychology and artificial intelligence
a linguistic schema₯₯₯being constructed by the brain being exposed to many instances of a particular language structure
1.6 Routines and patterns in language acquisition studies
Psycholinguistic explanation¨throw light on the role preconstructed phrases play in language acquisition
Krashen & Scarcella(1978)
Eroutines preconstructed or semi-preconstructed
Efixed chunks e.g.) How do you do? phrases
Epatterns e.g.) How much did cost?
@These presence results from the pressure , generally exerted by teacher on pupil to communicate at too early a stage
Ellis (1985)¨the parallels with schema theory
Pattern memorization₯₯₯gwhereby the learner attends to the inputh
Pattern imitation₯₯₯ginvolving the deliberate and methodical copying of whole utterances
used in the speech of an interlocutorh
Bolinger (1976)¨analogies from morphology
Pattern analysis₯₯₯glearning goes on constantly in segments of collocation size as much as it does in segments of word sizeh
Peters (1983)¨collocational principles are responsible for language acquisition
Eggestalt approachh₯₯₯Childrenfs attempting to use whole prefabricated utterances@in socially appropriate contexts
Eganalytic one-word-at –a –time approachh₯₯₯Childrenfs constructing sentences from gscratchh
Memorization of the form of a phrase+ memorization of its associated functions
badly hurt ¨physical hurt
terribly hurt, cruelly hurt¨moral or emotional hurt
@@The picture is more complicate. Each combination of intensifier with hurt has one connotation or the other.
badly hurt ¨physical hurt
deeply hurt, really hurt, terribly hurt¨moral or emotional hurt
seriously hurt, severely hurt¨physical hurt
@No general rules, each combination has its own connotation.
1.7 Types of collocations
Efixed@@ e.g.) of course, proverbs and sayings, quotations
@@ Evariable ginternal lexical variationh(Sinclair) e.g.) vested interest
Carter (1987) proposes many clines in the criteria in determining how fixed or free lexical patterns are
Esyntactic structure or word order
@@@The more irregular a phrasefs syntax, the more likely it is to be a fixed one.@@@
gmost restrictedh e.g.) stinking rich, blithering idiot
gsemi-restrictedh e.g.) harbor + doubts, uncertainty, a grudge, suspicion
gunrestrictedh e.g.) fat, bright, head
Every lexical item enters into particular collocational relations with the lexis of a language.
EEvery lexical item in the language has its own individual and unique pattern of behavior.