1 Collocation and Phrase Patterns

1.1 Definitions of collocation

Collocation

E J. R. Firth ( British linguist )

@  an abstraction at the syntagmatic level=gyou shall judge a word by the company it keepsh 

     e.g.) night¨@dark night, night night 

@

E Sinclair ( a student of Firth )

the occurrence of two or more words within a short space of each other in a text

                                «

@@@@@@@@@@@@@gtextualhdefinition@@

  @

  E Leech gSeven Types of Meaningh(1974)

    collocative meaning₯₯₯consists of the associations a word acquires on account of the meanings of words which tend to occur in its environment

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@«

@@@@@@@@@@gpsychologicalhorgassociativehdefinition

                      part of a native speakerfs communicative competence@

  @

E    Hoey (1991)

The name given to the relationship a lexical item has with items that appear with greater than random probability in its context

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@«

@@@@@@@@@@   gstatisticalhdefinition

 

Collocation is usually used to refer to the co-occurrence of two single words

J. R. Firth₯₯₯all grammatical levels including patterns such as assonance and alliteration taken from poetry

                            @@«

@@@@@@@             gCombinatoricsh

 

1.2 @Collocation, text type and style

The language as a whole  VS  the individualfs psychological knowledge of what constitutes normal collocation

Collocational normality is dependent genre, register and style

 

e.g.)

Eliterature and language₯₯₯ the usual collocations of a literary form or genre or of a particular author

Enon-literature

 (saved, spent, wasted ) time © common

       ( half, full, extra ) time © sports journalism

       vigorous depressions, dull highlights©meteorology and photography   

 

 McIntosh(1966)

    Enormal collocations and normal grammar

@@Eunusual collocations and normal grammar

@@Enormal collocations and unusual grammar

@@Eunusual collocations and unusual grammar 

 

  Carter(1987)₯₯₯producing language at the two extremes of the scale is risky.

                Between the two extremes is a dimension in which more individual and creative effects can be produced.

 

1.3  Collocation and communicative competence

The knowledge of normal collocations is part of a native speakerfs communicative competence.

  Communicative competence by Hymes(1971)

The knowledge of 1) what is formally possible  ¨ Chomskian competence

                 2) what is feasible                

                 3) what is appropriate       context-related, refining process

                 4) what is actually performed    @@@

                                 «

@@@@@@@@@@knowledge of what is normal collocation is important

 

  No total agreement as to which collocations are acceptable

  Carter(1987) gQuestions of acceptability are much more difficult to determine than the decision over what is grammatical or ungrammatical. hsuggesting by using gtechniques of informant analysis and a line drawn between what can generally be allowed and what can noth

 

1.4  The gidiom horgcollocationalh principle

Collocation₯₯₯two main organizing features of text © a number of authors

             open choice principle © Sinclair(1987)

ga series of slots which have to be filled from a lexiconh the only restraints being grammatical , further constraints are gidiomhgcollacational principlehSinclair(1987)

                                                    «

Q) Why do language users need to store both the single vocabulary items and a lexicon of preconstructed phrases?

E    The effort saved by making far fewer slot filling choices in real-time easily outweighs

the disadvantages of unwieldy storage.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

    EWe store a large number of complex items we manipulate with comparatively simple operations ₯₯₯Ladefoged (1972)

@@Estorage capacity is vast but that the speed for processing those memories is not so that we must learn shortcut₯₯₯Nattinger &DeCarrico(1992)

                  «

Idiom-collocation principle is to save processing time and effort.

                  «

typical of conversation and also being applied for writing

       for writing   1)signal the register    

                    2)cut down processing time

 

Discourses are created by a combination of the idiom and open choice principles.  But it is hard which is operating most strongly.

gthings for lexical units larger than wordshgidiomh©Bolinger

 

1.5  Collocation and linguistic schema ( or schemata )

Elexicalized sentence stems₯₯₯Pawley&Syder(1983)   explain the existence and functions

Elinguistic schema₯₯₯Barlow & Kemmer(1994)   in language of semi-constructed phrases

 

Ea lexicalized sentence stems

Consisting of a sentence or part of a sentence in which one or more of the structural elements is a class rather than a particular discrete item

e.g.) Ifm sorry to keep you waiting.

    Ifm sorry to have kept you waiting.

    Mr. X is sorry to keep you waiting all this time.

                    «

NP be-TENSE sorry to keep- TENSE you waiting.  ©@sentence stem 

 

 

Eschema

@form components of a gform-meaning pairinghwhich shares some of the qualities of a fixed phrase but which also contains variable parts capable of capturing context dependent information

Barlow (1996)

e.g.) let oneself go ¨variables  Elet       ¨glet + reflexive + goh= schema

Eoneself

@@@@@@@@@@@@@

 gschemash₯₯₯ghigh-level complex knowledge structureshwhich function asg ideational scaffoldinghborrowed from psychology and artificial intelligence

 

  a linguistic schema₯₯₯being constructed by the brain being exposed to many instances of a particular language structure

 

1.6  Routines and patterns in language acquisition studies

Psycholinguistic explanation¨throw light on the role preconstructed phrases play in language acquisition

 

 Krashen & Scarcella(1978)

 Egformulaichspeech

 Eroutines                                      preconstructed or semi-preconstructed  

 Efixed chunks e.g.) How do you do?                   phrases

 Epatterns  e.g.) How much did     cost?               

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@«

@These presence results from the pressure , generally exerted by teacher on pupil to communicate at too early a stage

 

Ellis (1985)¨the parallels with schema theory

 Pattern memorization₯₯₯gwhereby the learner attends to the inputh 

 Pattern imitation₯₯₯ginvolving the deliberate and methodical copying of whole utterances

 used in the speech of an interlocutorh

 

Bolinger (1976)¨analogies from morphology

 Pattern analysis₯₯₯glearning goes on constantly in segments of collocation size as much as it does in segments of  word sizeh

 

 

 

 

 

Peters (1983)¨collocational principles are responsible for language acquisition

Eggestalt approachh₯₯₯Childrenfs attempting to use whole prefabricated utterances@in socially appropriate contexts

 Eganalytic one-word-at –a –time approachh₯₯₯Childrenfs constructing sentences from gscratchh 

 

Memorization of the form of a phrase+ memorization of its associated functions

Bolinger (1976)

  badly hurt  ¨physical hurt

  terribly hurt, cruelly hurt¨moral or emotional hurt

          «

@@The picture is more complicate.  Each combination of intensifier with hurt has one connotation or the other.

  badly hurt  ¨physical hurt

  deeply hurt, really hurt, terribly hurt¨moral or emotional hurt

  seriously hurt, severely hurt¨physical hurt

           «

@No general rules, each combination has its own connotation.

 

1.7  Types of collocations

Collocational phrases

Efixed@@ e.g.) of course, proverbs and sayings, quotations

@@  Evariable  ginternal lexical variationh(Sinclair)   e.g.) vested interest     

@@

Carter (1987) proposes many clines in the criteria in determining how fixed or free lexical patterns are

Esyntactic structure or word order

@@@The more irregular a phrasefs syntax, the more likely it is to be a fixed one.@@@

Ecollocational restriction₯₯₯phrases

    gmost restrictedh e.g.) stinking rich, blithering idiot

gsemi-restrictedh e.g.) harbor + doubts, uncertainty, a grudge, suspicion

gunrestrictedh    e.g.) fat, bright, head

@@@    «

Every lexical item enters into particular collocational relations with the lexis of a language.

 

1.8 Conclusion

EEvery lexical item in the language has its own individual and unique pattern of behavior.